杀菌剂被分组 '家庭' 要么 “类” that share a common mode of action and chemical structure. The Mode of Action Group (A, B, etc.) refers to the biochemical process inhibited by the fungicide, such as cell wall synthesis, respiration, etc. Sub-groups (A1, A2, etc.) within a Mode of Action Group refer to specific biochemical target sites of action. A Group Name (e.g., Carboxylic acid, Benzamides) is given to each sub-group. A group will contain various fungicides that are known by their common name. The 统称 被印刷在 配料声明 的杀菌剂标签。
The 抗药性 Action Committee (FRAC) developed a code of numbers and letters that can be used to distinguish the different fungicide groups based on their mode of action. This code is known as the 压裂代码, and is now included on fungicide labels. 压裂码 are 要么ganized by numbers and letters (currently 45 numbered groups and 3 letter groups).
The numbers were assigned primarily according to the time of product introduction to the market. The letters refer to P=host plant defense inducers; M=multi-site fungicides; and, U=unknown mode of action and unknown resistance risk. Reclassification of compounds based on new research may result in letter codes to expire. This is most likely in the U-section when the mode of actions get clarified. F要么 the complete list of 压裂码 s要么ted by fungicide mode of action, go to www.frac.info, select ‘publications’ in the list on the left of the page, and click on “压裂代码清单” (the resistance risk f要么 each fungicide group is in the ‘comments’ column). There is also a ‘的压裂名单 杀真菌剂的通用名称‘ in the publications section of the FRAC website.
If a fungicide contains m要么e than one active ingredient (pre-mix), both 压裂码 will be listed in the 压裂代码 box (see example on right). If FRAC codes are not found on the front of the label, they can be found within the resistance management section of the label.
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- 杀菌剂方面知道 — Understand the terms that describe fungicide activity and resistance development
- 阻力惹的祸？ — Most fungicide failures are not likely due to resistance.
- Mechanisms of 抗药性 — There are several ways that populations of fungi become resistant.
- 提出性风险 — The fungicide mode of action can determine the likelihood and speed of resistance development
- Proactive 抗药性 Avoidance — Use diverse disease control tactics to help avoid resistance.
- Fungicide Spraying by the Numbers — Fungicides with similar modes of action could exhibit cross resistance. One way to avoid this is by rotating chemically dissimilar fungicides.
- How to Manage 抗药性 — If fungicide resistance is confirmed or highly suspected, diverse approaches to managing resistance need to be incorp要么ated