积极抗除草剂管理

Early detection of resistance means management will be easier, and it increases the potential to avoid the spread of the resistant biotype. Unfortunately, because resistant plants and susceptible plants look alike, resistance often is not detected until the resistant biotype has spread to 30% or more of the field and perhaps to surrounding fields. Therefore, a proactive approach using diverse weed control tactics is the most effective way to manage herbicide resistance.

主动抗性管理的主要目的是通过减少选择压力:

  1. 选择和使用正确除草剂;
  2. 认识到促进抗性杂草的特性;和,
  3. 管理领域,农场或网站明智。

做什么需要主动管理除草剂抗性是一个很好的选择付出代价,一旦发生克服阻力。

选择和正确使用除草剂:

  1. Rotate herbicides with different mechanisms of action, not just different label names. Avoid consecutive applications of the same herbicide unless it is used in a tank-mix or pre-pack containing an herbicide with a different mechanism of action or used with other weed management options such as cultivation and cultural methods. The herbicides and/or alternative methods used must be active against the target weed.
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  3. Minimize the use of long-residual herbicides. Susceptible plants emerging later in the season following use of a long-residual herbicide (or multiple applications of a non-residual herbicide) are still exposed to the herbicide, thereby increasing selection pressure.
  4. 适用除草剂均匀准确(见 校准),并且使用标记的应用率。比标签价格低已被证明能增加代谢性的可能性。比标利率较高的使用是非法的,也可以增强抗性的选择压力。

认识到促进性杂草的特点:

  1. Some weed populations are more prone to resistance in which there is a high frequency of the resistance trait. If the initial frequency is 1 resistant plant in a population of 100,000, as compared with 1 in 10 million, resistance will develop much more rapidly. A high initial frequency of resistant biotypes in many weed families is one reason resistance to ALS inhibitors develops rapidly.
  2. canada thistlAnnual weeds can have several reproductive generations per growing season, and those that cross pollinate tend to be more prone to develop resistance. Species that have adaptations for seed dispersal over greater distances also tend to be more prone to develop resistance, or the resistant biotype spreads more rapidly.
  3. Where a strong resistance trait is present, failure will be more apparent in weed species that are initially highly susceptible to the herbicide. If a species is highly susceptible, fewer susceptible plants escape treatment and reproduce. Only resistant biotypes survive and reproduce.

管理领域,农场,或明智的网站:

  1. tractor working in fieldCapitalize on cultural practices to reduce reliance on herbicides.  When fewer non-chemical control methods (such as cultivation) are used, resistance is more likely to develop, or will develop more rapidly. Use correct row spacing, proper fertility, optimum planting dates, and management of other pests to maximize the crop’s ability to compete with weeds. Where erosion and/or limited soil moisture are not a concern supplement chemicals with timely cultivation. For annual cropping systems, start with a clean field and control weeds early by using a burn down treatment or tillage in combination with a  pre-emergence residual herbicide, as appropriate.  Do not let weeds to go to seed.
  2. Rotate crops to allow greater flexibility in choosing different tillage practices and/or the use of herbicides with different mechanisms of action.  Changing tillage practices and herbicides makes it more likely that you avoid consistently favoring the same weed species. NOTE: It is possible to rotate crops and, yet, still be using the same herbicide MOA to control the same weed. To illustrate, there are several ALS-inhibiting herbicides (from the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone families) for peanuts and cotton that can be applied either pre-emergence or post-emergence. In this case, you should be aware that it is possible to apply the same type of herbicide for pigweed control every year, even though cotton and peanuts are grown in rotation. 看到这些数字喷涂。
  3. man scouting in field侦察领域定期并保持使用除草剂的良好记录,在规划今后几年的援助。注意,已经存在于某一领域,其中除草剂被应用并在杂草,并取得了什么样的控制率(%)水平。
  4. 要知道,抗性杂草可以从公路,铁路,公用事业版权的路和其他地区的农场或经治疗的部位附近蔓延。

通过编译 博士。韦恩布勒博士

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